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Air Embolism: Resource Center

A compilation of journals, case studies and articles about Air Embolism.

Pediatric

Infant death due to air embolism from peripheral venous infusion

Sowell MW, Lovelady CL, Brogdon BG, Wecht CH. Infant death due to air embolism from peripheral venous infusion. J Forensic Sci. 2007 Jan;52(1):183-8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17209934

Probable venous air embolism during epidural placement in an infant

Swartz N, Eisenkraft JB. Probable venous air embolism during epidural placement in an infant. Anesth Analg 1993;76:1136–8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8484518

Shunt lesions

Chang AC, Wells W. Shunt lesions. In: Chung AC, Hanley FL, Wernovsky G, Wassell DL, editors. Pediatric cardiac intensive care. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2005:207–8.

Diagnosis & Treatment

Diagnosis and treatment of vascular air embolism

Mirski MA, Lele AV, Fitzsimmons L, Toung TJ. Diagnosis and treatment of vascular air embolism. Anesthesiology. 2007 Jan;106(1):164-77. Review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17197859

Acute management of vascular air embolism

Shaikh N, Ummunisa F. Acute management of vascular air embolism. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock. 2009;2(3):180-185.doi:10.4103/0974-2700.55330.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776366/

General Review Articles

Gas Embolism

Muth CM, Shank ES. Gas embolism. N Engl J Med. 2000 Feb 17;342(7):476-82. Review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10675429

Prevention and management of air in an IV infusion system

von Jürgensonn S. Prevention and management of air in an IV infusion system. Br J Nurs. 2010 May 27-Jun 9;19(10):S28-30.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20622771

Venous air embolism

O'Quin RJ, Lakshminarayan S. Venous air embolism. Arch Intern Med. 1982 Nov;142(12):2173-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7138162

Venous air embolism during home infusion therapy

Laskey AL, Dyer C, Tobias JD. Venous air embolism during home infusion therapy. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):E15.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11773583

Venous air embolism: clinical and experimental considerations

Orebaugh SL. Venous air embolism: clinical and experimental considerations. Crit Care Med. 1992 Aug;20(8):1169-77. Review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1643897

The pathology of venous air embolism

Hartveit F, Lystad H, Minken A. The pathology of venous air embolism. Br J Exp Pathol. 1968 Feb;49(1):81-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5640639

Cardiopulmonary effects of intravenous gas embolism; with special reference to fate of intravascular gas bubbles

Oyama Y, Spencer MP. Cardiopulmonary effects of intravenous gas embolism; with special reference to fate of intravascular gas bubbles. Jpn Circ J. 1971 Dec;35(12):1541-9.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5172474

Procedure-related serious adverse events among home hemodialysis patients: a quality assurance perspective

Wong B, Zimmerman D, Reintjes F, Courtney M, Klarenbach S, Dowling G, Pauly RP. Procedure-related serious adverse events among home hemodialysis patients: a quality assurance perspective. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Feb;63(2):251-8. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.07.009. Epub 2013 Aug 30. Review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23993152

Long-term outcome of iatrogenic gas embolism

Bessereau J, Genotelle N, Chabbaut C, Huon A, Tabah A, Aboab J, Chevret S, Annane D. Long-term outcome of iatrogenic gas embolism. Intensive Care Med. 2010 Jul;36(7):1180-7. doi: 10.1007/s00134-010-1821-9. Epub 2010 Mar 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20221749

Massive venous air embolism

Marchand P, Van Hasselt, Luntz CH. Massive venous air embolism. S Afr Med J. 1964 Mar 28;38:202-8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14133044

Pulmonary (venous) air embolism

Durant TM, Long J, Oppenheimer MJ. Pulmonary (venous) air embolism. Am Heart J. 1947 Mar;33(3):269-81

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20286347

Venous air embolism: a review.

Palmon SC, Moore LE, Lundberg J, Toung T. Venous air embolism: a review. J Clin Anesth. 1997 May;9(3):251-7. Review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9172037

Air Embolism ? : Don’t worry it was just a bubble….

Laidlow, Kate. Air Embolism ? : Don’t worry it was just a bubble…. IVNNZ Newsletter. 2011.

http://www.ivnnz.co.nz/newsletter/Articles/CVC-Complications

Liability Related to Peripheral Venous and Arterial Catheterization: A Closed Claims Analysis

Bhananker SM, Liau DW, Kooner PK, Posner KL, Caplan RA, Domino KB. Liability related to peripheral venous and arterial catheterization: a closed claims analysis. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jul;109(1):124-9. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e31818f87c8.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19377051

Injuries and Liability Related to Central Vascular Catheters: A Closed Claims Analysis

Domino KB, Bowdle TA, Posner KL, Spitellie PH, Lee LA, Cheney FW. Injuries and liability related to central vascular catheters: a closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology. 2004 Jun;100(6):1411-8. Review.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15166560

Microbubbles: pathophysiology and clinical implications.

Barak, Michal, and Yeshayahu Katz. "Microbubbles: pathophysiology and clinical implications." CHEST Journal 128.4 (2005): 2918-2932.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16236969

Pathophysiology and clinical implications of microbubbles during hemodialysis.

Barak M, Nakhoul F, Katz Y. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of microbubbles during hemodialysis. Semin Dial. 2008 May-Jun; 21(3):232-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-139X.2008.00424.x. Review.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18363602

Vascular air embolism: A silent hazard to patient safety.

Brull SJ, Prielipp RC. Vascular air embolism: A silent hazard to patient safety. J Crit Care. 2017 Aug 7;42:255-263. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.08.010.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28802790

Warmers, Pumps & Filters

Amount of air infused to patient increases as fluid flow rates decrease when using the Hotline HL-90 fluid warmer.

Woon S, Talke P. Amount of air infused to patient increases as fluid flow rates decrease when using the Hotline HL-90 fluid warmer. J Clin Monit Comput. 1999 May;15(3-4):149-52.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12568165

Fluid warmer as a potential source of air bubble emboli.

Stevenson GW, Tobin M, Hall SC.  Fluid warmer as a potential source of air bubble emboli.  Anesth Analg.  1995 May; 80(5):1061.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7726413

A dangerous side of In-Line IV filters when used for vasoactive infusions in infants

Destiny Chau, D, Gish,B, Tzanetos, D, Zhang, C. A dangerous side of In-Line IV filters when used for vasoactive infusions in infants. J Anesth Safety Patient Foundation. 2013; 28(2).

http://www.apsf.org/newsletters/html/2013/fall/ltr04-inlineivfilters.htm

Potential for air embolism using Hotline™ model HL90 fluid warmer

Wolin, J, Vasdev, G. Potential for air embolism using Hotline™ model HL90 fluid warmer. J Clin. Anesth. 1996; 8(1):81-82.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09528180/8/1

Beware of Air in the Blood Pump

Breen, P, Hong, A. Beware of Air in the Blood Pump. Anesth Analg. 2000; 91(4):1038.

http://journals.lww.com/anesthesia-analgesia/Citation/2000/10000/Beware_of_Air_in_the_Blood_Pump.53.aspx

Intravenous Air: The Partially Invisible Phenomenon.

Varga C, Luria I, Gravenstein N. Intravenous Air: The Partially Invisible Phenomenon. Anesth Analg. 2016 Nov;123(5):1149-1155. PubMed PMID: 27749346.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27749346

Volume of Air Generated from HotlineⓇ Warmer – Plenty to Cause Serious Injury/Morbidity in Pediatrics

Haddad, I., Doucet, P., Lobozzo, J., Vadhera, A. Volume of Air Generated from HotlineⓇ Warmer – Plenty to Cause Serious Injury/Morbidity in Pediatrics.  ClearLine MD.  2016.

Limitations and Failures of In-Line IV Filters

Haddad, I., Lobozzo, J. Limitations and Failures of In-Line IV Filters. ClearLine MD LLC. 2017.

Case Reports

Air embolism--a case series and review.

Sviri S, Woods WP, van Heerden PV. Air embolism--a case series and review. Crit Care Resusc. 2004 Dec;6(4):271-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16556106

Air embolism--an analysis of 2000 incident reports.

Williamson JA, Webb RK, Russell WJ, Runciman WB. The Australian Incident Monitoring Study. Air embolism--an analysis of 2000 incident reports. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1993 Oct;21(5):638-41.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8273888

'Bubbles in the brain': systemic air embolism syndrome from an atrial-oesophageal fistula.

Cereda C, Staedler C, Moschovitis G, Caronni F, Bassetti CL, Azzola A. 'Bubbles in the brain': systemic air embolism syndrome from an atrial-oesophageal fistula. Emerg Med J. 2011 May;28(5):455. doi: 10.1136/emj.2010.093195.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20558494

Cerebral ischemia after venous air embolism in the absence of intracardiac defects.

Tommasino C, Rizzardi R, Beretta L, Venturino M, Piccoli S. Cerebral ischemia after venous air embolism in the absence of intracardiac defects. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 1996 Jan;8(1):30-4.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8719190

Air Embolism During Posterior Spinal Fusion in a 10-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report

Lee-Archer PF, Chaseling B. Air Embolism During Posterior Spinal Fusion in a 10-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report. A A Case Rep. 2017 Jun 1;8(11):307-309. doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000498.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28328590

Pressurized Intravenous Fluid Administration in the Professional Football Player: A Unique Setting for Venous Air Embolism.

Fibel KH, Barnes RP, Kinderknecht JJ. Pressurized Intravenous Fluid Administration in the Professional Football Player: A Unique Setting for Venous Air Embolism. Clin J Sport Med. 2015 Jul;25(4):e67-9. Doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000150.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25290105

Miscellaneous

Air bubble contact with endothelial cells causes a calcium-independent loss in mitochondrial membrane potential.

Sobolewski P, Kandel J, Eckmann DM. Air bubble contact with endothelial cells causes a calcium-independent loss in mitochondrial membrane potential. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47254. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047254. Epub 2012 Oct 16. PubMed PMID: 23091614; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3473031.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23091614

Air bubble contact with endothelial cells in vitro induces calcium influx and IP3-dependent release of calcium stores.

Sobolewski P, Kandel J, Klinger AL, Eckmann DM. Air bubble contact with endothelial cells in vitro induces calcium influx and IP3-dependent release of calcium stores. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011 Sep;301(3):C679-86. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00046.2011. Epub 2011 Jun 1. PubMed PMID: 21633077; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3273994.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633077

Mechanotransductional Basis of Endothelial Cell Response to Intravascular Bubbles

Klinger AL, Pichette B, Sobolewski P, Eckmann DM. Mechanotransductional Basis of Endothelial Cell Response to Intravascular Bubbles. Integrative biology : quantitative biosciences from nano to macro. 2011;3(10):1033-1042. doi:10.1039/c1ib00017a.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3186877/

Bubble-Induced Endothelial Microparticles Promote Endothelial Dysfunction

Yu X, Xu J, Huang G, et al. Bubble-Induced Endothelial Microparticles Promote Endothelial Dysfunction. Bader M, ed. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(1):e0168881. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168881.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256891/​

Arterial Limb Microemboli during Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Observations from a Congenital Cardiac Surgery Practice

Matte GS, Connor KR, Liu H, DiNardo JA, Faraoni D, Pigula F. Arterial Limb Microemboli during Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Observations from a Congenital Cardiac Surgery Practice. The Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology. 2016;48(1):5-10.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4850225/​

Webinars

Venous Air: A Source of Unrecognized Morbidity

Webinar by Gerard J. Myers, RT, CCP Emeritus

"There is a common misconception that 'a little air will never hurt anyone.'"