Sowell MW, Lovelady CL, Brogdon BG, Wecht CH. Infant death due to air embolism from peripheral venous infusion. J Forensic Sci. 2007 Jan;52(1):183-8. Abstract An otherwise healthy male infant wa

1 Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 2 Division of Neonatology, University of M

Department of Anesthesiology, Roxborough Memorial Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 19128. Comment On Probable venous air embolism during caudal anesthesia in a child. [Anesth Analg. 1993] Probab

Diagnosis and Treatment

Shaikh N, Ummunisa F. Acute management of vascular air embolism. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock. 2009;2(3):180-185.doi:10.4103/0974-2700.55330. Abstract Vascular air embolism (VAE) is

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Abstract Vascular air embolism is a potentially life-threa

General Reviews

von Jürgensonn S. Prevention and management of air in an IV infusion system. Br J Nurs. 2010 May 27-Jun 9;19(10):S28-30. Abstract When air enters the circulatory system of the human body it can cau

Muth CM, Shank ES. Gas embolism. N Engl J Med. 2000 Feb 17;342(7):476-82. Review. Introduction Gas embolism, the entry of gas into vascular structures, is a largely iatrogenic clinical problem that

Laskey AL, Dyer C, Tobias JD. Venous air embolism during home infusion therapy. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):E15. Abstract Venous air embolism (VAE) is a potential complication of surgical proced

Orebaugh SL. Venous air embolism: clinical and experimental considerations. Crit Care Med. 1992 Aug;20(8):1169-77. Review Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the existing literature concerning venous

Hartveit F, Lystad H, Minken A. The pathology of venous air embolism. Br J Exp Pathol. 1968 Feb;49(1):81-6. Full Text Link

Oyama Y, Spencer MP. Cardiopulmonary effects of intravenous gas embolism; with special reference to fate of intravascular gas bubbles. Jpn Circ J. 1971 Dec;35(12):1541-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.go

Wong B, Zimmerman D, Reintjes F, Courtney M, Klarenbach S, Dowling G, Pauly RP. Procedure-related serious adverse events among home hemodialysis patients: a quality assurance perspective. Am J Kidney

Bessereau J, Genotelle N, Chabbaut C, Huon A, Tabah A, Aboab J, Chevret S, Annane D. Long-term outcome of iatrogenic gas embolism. Intensive Care Med. 2010 Jul;36(7):1180-7. doi: 10.1007/s00134-010-18

Marchand P, Van Hasselt, Luntz CH. Massive venous air embolism. S Afr Med J. 1964 Mar 28;38:202-8.

Sowell MW, Lovelady CL, Brogdon BG, Wecht CH. Infant death due to air embolism from peripheral venous infusion. J Forensic Sci. 2007 Jan;52(1):183-8. Abstract Pulmonary (venous) air embolism is

Palmon SC, Moore LE, Lundberg J, Toung T. Venous air embolism: a review. J Clin Anesth. 1997 May;9(3):251-7. Review. Abstract Venous air embolism (VAE) can be a lethal complication of surgical p

Bhananker SM, Liau DW, Kooner PK, Posner KL, Caplan RA, Domino KB. Liability related to peripheral venous and arterial catheterization: a closed claims analysis. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jul;109(1):124-9. d

Domino KB, Bowdle TA, Posner KL, Spitellie PH, Lee LA, Cheney FW. Injuries and liability related to central vascular catheters: a closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology. 2004 Jun;100(6):1411-8. Review

Barak, Michal, and Yeshayahu Katz. “Microbubbles: pathophysiology and clinical implications.” CHEST Journal 128.4 (2005): 2918-2932. Abstract Gas embolism is a known complication of variou

Barak M, Nakhoul F, Katz Y. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of microbubbles during hemodialysis. Semin Dial. 2008 May-Jun; 21(3):232-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-139X.2008.00424.x. Review. Abstra

Brull SJ, Prielipp RC. Vascular air embolism: A silent hazard to patient safety. J Crit Care. 2017 Aug 7;42:255-263. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.08.010. Abstract PURPOSE: To narratively review publi

Jack T, Boehne M, Brent BE, et al. In-line filtration reduces severe complications and length of stay on pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Intensive Care Med

Warmers, Pumps & Filters

Wolin, J, Vasdev, G. Potential for air embolism using Hotline™ model HL90 fluid warmer. J Clin. Anesth. 1996; 8(1):81-82. Read More…

Destiny Chau, D, Gish,B, Tzanetos, D, Zhang, C. A dangerous side of In-Line IV filters when used for vasoactive infusions in infants. J Anesth Safety Patient Foundation. 2013; 28(2) Introduction

Sowell MW, Lovelady CL, Brogdon BG, Wecht CH. Infant death due to air embolism from peripheral venous infusion. J Forensic Sci. 2007 Jan;52(1):183-8. Full Text Link

Woon S, Talke P. Amount of air infused to patient increases as fluid flow rates decrease when using the Hotline HL-90 fluid warmer. J Clin Monit Comput. 1999 May;15(3-4):149-52. Abstract OBJECTIVE

Breen, P, Hong, A. Beware of Air in the Blood Pump. Anesth Analg. 2000; 91(4):1038. Letter to the Editor Air embolism can complicate peripheral IV fluid therapy (1) or central venous catheter moni

Varga C, Luria I, Gravenstein N. Intravenous Air: The Partially Invisible Phenomenon. Anesth Analg. 2016 Nov;123(5):1149-1155. PubMed PMID: 27749346. Abstract BACKGROUND: Air injection is careful

Haddad, I., Doucet, P., Lobozzo, J., Vadhera, A. Volume of Air Generated from HotlineⓇ Warmer – Plenty to Cause Serious Injury/Morbidity in Pediatrics.  ClearLine MD.  2016. Goals To measure

Case Reports

Sviri S, Woods WP, van Heerden PV. Air embolism–a case series and review. Crit Care Resusc. 2004 Dec;6(4):271-6. Abstract Venous or arterial air embolism may be a life threatening event. The c

Williamson JA, Webb RK, Russell WJ, Runciman WB. The Australian Incident Monitoring Study. Air embolism–an analysis of 2000 incident reports. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1993 Oct;21(5):638-41. Abstract

Cereda C, Staedler C, Moschovitis G, Caronni F, Bassetti CL, Azzola A. ‘Bubbles in the brain’: systemic air embolism syndrome from an atrial-oesophageal fistula. Emerg Med J. 2011 May;28(5):455. d

Tommasino C, Rizzardi R, Beretta L, Venturino M, Piccoli S. Cerebral ischemia after venous air embolism in the absence of intracardiac defects. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 1996 Jan;8(1):30-4. Abstract

Lee-Archer PF, Chaseling B. Air Embolism During Posterior Spinal Fusion in a 10-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report. A A Case Rep. 2017 Jun 1;8(11):307-309. doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000498. Abstract Veno

Fibel KH, Barnes RP, Kinderknecht JJ. Pressurized Intravenous Fluid Administration in the Professional Football Player: A Unique Setting for Venous Air Embolism. Clin J Sport Med. 2015 Jul;25(4):e67-9

Gas Embolism, Cell Damage and Death

Sobolewski P, Kandel J, Eckmann DM. Air bubble contact with endothelial cells causes a calcium-independent loss in mitochondrial membrane potential. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47254. doi: 10.1371/journal.p

Sobolewski P, Kandel J, Klinger AL, Eckmann DM. Air bubble contact with endothelial cells in vitro induces calcium influx and IP3-dependent release of calcium stores. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011 S

Klinger AL, Pichette B, Sobolewski P, Eckmann DM. Mechanotransductional Basis of Endothelial Cell Response to Intravascular Bubbles. Integrative biology : quantitative biosciences from nano to macr

Yu X, Xu J, Huang G, et al. Bubble-Induced Endothelial Microparticles Promote Endothelial Dysfunction. Bader M, ed. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(1):e0168881. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168881. Abstract Dec

Matte GS, Connor KR, Liu H, DiNardo JA, Faraoni D, Pigula F. Arterial Limb Microemboli during Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Observations from a Congenital Cardiac Surgery Practice. The Journal of Extra-cor

Now you can avoid long-term clinical complications, extended hospital stays and medical liability costs caused by air embolisms.

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